Windows makes using and managing removable devices, such as external hard drives or DVD-writers, smart card readers, USB flash drives, SD cards, photo and video cameras, MP3-players, etc easy. Just plug the device in, wait for driver installation to complete (if necessary) and start using.
There is a very important catch, though. I've seen many people just unplugging USB/Thunderbolt/Firewire storage devices without telling Windows to remove them safely first. Such behavior can sometimes cause loss of data on external data devices (flash drives, hard drives, cameras, players), or even completely irrecoverable failure of the storage device.
The worst consequences usually appear after unplugging a device while copying or deleting files is still in progress. Do you have backups of your important data?
Windows does turn off write buffers for external storage devices by default, but people still remove external disks and media cards without waiting for operations to complete properly.
Remember, you should always safely eject a storage device before physically unplugging it from USB, Thunderbolt or Firewire port! Even if a copy, delete or move progress dialog disappears, the process might still continue for several minutes until the contents have been completely copied to the disk or device.
Many devices do not require additional actions before unplugging because no data is stored on them: for example, scanners and printers.
When you plug an external device into your computer's USB, Thunderbolt or Firewire port for the first time, Windows will try to find drivers for it automatically. You do not need to click the message, just stand by.
Most data devices are recognized without any additional actions, just wait until you'll see the message "Your new hardware is installed and ready to use" or "Your device is ready to use":
A small green check mark on USB plug icon appears in Taskbar Notification Area. It is called Safely Remove Hardware in Windows XP and Vista and Safely Remove Hardware and Eject Media in Windows 7, 8/8.1 and 10. This is what you will use to safely remove your hardware.
In Windows 7 and later, you might need to click the Show hidden icons button (arrowhead up) to see the green check mark icon.
Your new disk device will also have the first available drive letter (F: in this example) and Type called "Removable Disk" when you open My Computer (aka This PC since Windows 8.1) or Windows/File Explorer.
If Windows is unable to install drivers for any USB drive, please see the Windows does not recognize any USB storage devices article at winhelp.info.
When you need to unplug your data device, click (or right-click) the Safely Remove Hardware (and Eject Media) icon in Taskbar Notification Area (aka System Tray) and choose Safely remove <the type of your device> (in Windows XP and Vista) or Eject <the type of your device> (in Windows 7, 8, 8.1 and 10).
In Windows XP and Vista, you have to close all Windows Explorer processes that have the device open, but Windows 7 and newer will close them for you automatically unless the removable device is in use (file copying, moving or deleting is in progress).
Windows will not automatically close any other programs that are still using the device.
If everything is fine and nothing is using the device, Windows XP, 7, 8 and 8.1 users will see a pop-up message that it is now safe to remove the device.
Windows Vista will open a dialog window for this.
Windows 10 uses Action Center to display a toast notification when a device can be safely removed.
In case some program or app is still using the device, you will see a warning message. Click OK to close the dialog. Then exit all programs that are using the data device and try again after ten seconds.
If a USB flash disk drive, external hard disk or memory card has already been removed improperly and file system has been damaged, the Do you want to scan and fix Removable Disk dialog in Windows Vista and 7 appears after you reconnect the device. Always click Scan and fix (recommended) to prevent possible data loss.
In Windows 8 and 8.1, a notification appears on top right of the screen (called Toast notification), stating "There's a problem with this drive. Scan the drive now and fix it." Click or tap the notification.
In Windows 10, a similar toast appears on the bottom right of the screen.
In Windows Vista and 7, Check Disk window will appear. By default, Automatically fix file system errors is already selected, so continue by clicking Start.
In Windows 8 and 8.1, Repair this drive dialog pops up. Click Repair drive.
After repairing the file system problems, the Your drive was successfully scanned (if no errors were found on the drive) or Some problems were found and fixed dialog appears. Click Close.
Please eject your device safely the next time. Do not forget that you should always back up your most important data (even if you store it on removable devices)!
You can choose between two policies for removable storage devices:
- Quick removal - this one is turned on by default and it disables write caching to minimize the possibility of data loss in case a user unplugs a device without ejecting it safely first.
- Performance - turns on write buffers and enhances write speed of the device. You must always remove this hardware safely because files might not be copied or written to the disk completely even if no disk activity indicator is on or blinking.
If you select this one, it is recommended to use UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) to minimize the probability of data loss during unexpected power outages.
To open Device Manager, right-click (My) Computer/This PC icon on Desktop or in Start menu and select Properties.
Windows 8/8.1 and 10 users can also open the Quick Links menu with keyboard shortcut Windows Key+X (or right-click/tap and hold Start tip/button) and choose Device Manager.
In Windows XP, System Properties window opens. Open Hardware tab and click Device Manager.
In Windows Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10, click the Device Manager link in the left part of the Basic system information window.
In the Device Manager window, expand the Disk drives section and locate the removable drive. It usually includes its connector type, such as USB or FireWire in the name.
Right-click the drive and select Properties from the menu.
Open the Policies tab.
In Windows XP, select Optimize for performance to speed up the storage device. Optimize for quick removal disables write caching, but reduces the possibility of data loss.
In Windows Vista and later, the options are named Better performance and Quick removal (default).
Click OK after making changes.