How to use the site
Different formatting is used throughout the site for better understanding and finding information:
- Keyboard shortcuts - for example, Alt+F, Ctrl+Alt+Del, Windows key+E. Here Alt+F means holding down Alt key and pressing F key on your keyboard. Ctrl+Alt+Del means holding down Ctrl and Alt keys simultaneously and pressing Del key.
You can access menus, run commands and programs, move around different windows, etc with keyboard shortcuts.
- Menus, menu items and buttons - for example, choosing Save command from File menu or clicking OK button.
- Tabs - for example, choosing Advanced tab from Start menu customization.
- Commands in command prompts - commands you must type and then execute pressing Enter (Return) key. For example, dir in Windows command prompt gives you a list of files and folders under current folder.
- <variable> - a variable is something that has no fixed value. This could be <drive letter>, <version number>, <last action name> or anything else really. For example, when a command line is specified as dir <drive letter> and you want to see a list of files on Local Drive C:, you should replace variable with "C:" and therefore type dir C:.
Using mouse or touch screen
Throughout the articles I'll use short words such as "click", "touch" and "right-click" for mouse actions. By "click" I mean something you do with your mouse button(s) and by "press" I mean something you do with your keyboard buttons. Do not mix them up!
- Click - you press and release your mouse's left button once. This is used to activate items on desktop and in programs; the action also opens menus and launches menu items.
Touch screen equivalent is called touch - you press an item once and then lift your finger.
- Double-click - you press and release your mouse's left button twice within a second. This is used to run programs and items on desktop, open folders, etc. Touch screen owners rarely need to double-tap items.
- Right-click - you press and release your mouse's right button once. This is used to open items' submenus. On touch screens, the equivalent is touch and hold for a second.
- Click and hold or drag - you press and hold your mouse's left button down. This is used to move items to another place. For example, you click and hold on My Documents icon on Desktop, drag it onto My Computer icon and then release the mouse button. On touch screens, dragging works the same way (but using your finger).
- Choose or select - same as click or touch.
Special keys on keyboard
Keyboards have different layouts for different languages. Additionally, laptop keyboards are smaller and have some keys reordered. Some keyboards have labels on special keys, some have only symbols. But their position on keyboard is usually the same. I will use a standard US layout to explain where most confusing keys are.
Please note that not all keyboards have Windows and Menu keys!
- Backspace - looks like a long arrow pointing to the left. It is located in the right part of second row from the top.
- Tab - looks like two arrows on pointing to the left and to the right. It is located in the leftmost part of third row from the top.
- Enter (also called Return) - looks like an arrow pointing down to the left. It is located in the right part of fourth row from the top. On many non-US keyboards Enter key is the tallest key on keyboard and it is located in the right part of third row from the top, covering two rows.
- Shift - looks like a thick arrow pointing up. It is located in leftmost part of the fifth row from the top.
- Space - the longest key on keyboard. It is located in the middle of bottom row.
- Windows Key or WinDows Logo - looks like a flying Windows logo or a flying flag. It is located in bottom row, between Ctrl and Alt keys, to the left of Space key.
- Menu key - looks like a mouse pointer on menu. It is located in bottom row, between Windows Key and Ctrl key (on desktop computer keyboards) or between Alt or Alt Gr key and Ctrl key (on laptop computer keyboards), to the right of Space key.
- Arrow keys - arrows pointing up, left, down and right.
- Numpad keys - these keys are found on desktop computer keyboards only. Functions of these keys are controlled by Num Lock key. If Num Lock is turned on (Num Lock light is lit), the keys with two labels function as number keys. Otherwise they function as arrow keys.
Links to other pages on this site and links to other websites
There are two different types of hyperlinks here and you can distinguish between them easily:
Notice that hyperlinks leading to other websites have a small icon behind them. These links also open in a new browser window or tab, depending on your browser settings.
On some pages, parts of contents are hidden in special areas for better readability. These areas are indicated with the small arrow icon displayed below:Click here to show or hide the special area
Note on version numbers on images
As creating this site's content took a long time, the version numbers on images are often out of date. Please do not pay much attention on versions on instructional images, always use the latest version available. If a program changes radically, I will update article and its images within a month or so.
You can look for content on this web site by entering keywords in the Google Custom Search box (above the title of a page) and clicking Search button. You can use one or more keywords. Basic word stemming is turned on, so if you enter "viru" for keyword, the search also finds articles that include "virus", "viruses", "antivirus", etc.
To search in contents of currently open page, use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+F and type the word or phrase you are looking for. If your browser does not locate the word automatically, press Enter key.